Comparative Police Systems (Jus 251) Web Page

This page is designed as a resource for students that are exploring Comparative Police Systems.Our resources will be divided into News Items, Readings and Web links.

News Items




Report of the Integrity and Accountability Officer/Philadelphia Police Department





Web Links


Police Deviance

Chicago Police Department and Community Policing

European Network of Police Women

Community Policing in South Africa

History of Policing in South Africa

Nepal and Crime in Nepal

A Primer on Restorative Justice

Restorative Justice Around the World

Crime and Policing in China

Community Policing, An International Perspective

Arming the Police of the Veteran’s Administration

Arming Police With Assault Rifles

Arming British Police

Arming Campus police officers

Growth of Paramilitarism in American Policing

The Difficulty of Policing the Police

South African Police Service


Police and Private Security Jobs

September 7, 2002

Leader Sees New York Police in Vanguard of Terror Fight


T his interview is the fourth of a series in which national and world figures reflect on the terrorist attacks and their

effect on a year of public life and policy.

New Yorkers are engaged in a war that has no foreseeable end, Police Commissioner Raymond W. Kelly says, and the greatest

challenge facing his 39,000 officers is acquiring the training and the global perspective necessary to confront the devastating

impact of terrorism.

Mr. Kelly said his ultimate aim was to have a force prepared to meet the challenge of detecting, preventing and responding to

biological or chemical attacks or even weapons of mass destruction. Further, he wants his officers able to react to any incident

quickly, as if it were "second nature."

To that end, Mr. Kelly said, he has ordered backup command posts to be set up across the city and region so the department

could function in the event of multiple, simultaneous attacks. He has improved his intelligence division, including hiring a former

C.I.A. official, and improved the performance of the department's language specialists. He has sent detectives to Israel and

elsewhere to learn, from experts, the art of preventing targeted terror attacks.

Further, he said, he has enlisted a medical specialist to monitor daily developments in the city's hospitals to detect any suspicious

outbreaks of illness that might reflect a biological attack. And he has agreed to conduct joint drills with the Fire Department to

avoid the problems in communication and coordination that marked the emergency response on Sept. 11.

"I think, in terms of counterterrorism, we're safer now than we were last year," said Mr. Kelly, who took over as the city's top

law enforcement official in January. "We have done a lot. We will do more. But I think the city is a safe and hospitable place for

anybody to come to. I'm living here. New Yorkers are living here and flourishing, doing well."

Mr. Kelly was police commissioner in February of 1993, when terrorists first tried to topple the World Trade Center. He

expressed a painful awareness that New York's na´vetÚ and complacency led to the city's and the nation's failure to view that

strike as a warning.

He said he never expected, a year ago, when he was working in the private sector, that he would return to the police

commissioner's job, though he said he knew after the attacks that he wanted to fight the fight.

As the first anniversary of the attacks approaches, Mr. Kelly is among those in the city to whom it has fallen to both reassure the

public and fix a security and emergency response network found wanting when terror arrived.

Sitting in his 14th-floor office at Police Headquarters in downtown Manhattan, just blocks from the Trade Center site, he

reflected on his role as the first protector of a city that has been a terrorist target four times in recent years.

As perhaps the most visible local law enforcement leader in the nation, Mr. Kelly employs a blend of pragmatism and politics

when he discusses his department. He argues that an attack on New York is an attack on the United States that could fracture

the nation's economy, and it appears that his goal of obtaining federal money — $500 million to $700 million — for training,

equipment and other resources seems never to be far from his thoughts.

On the other hand, he does not see his department as hampered by the lack of funds. "We are moving forward," he said. "Would

we like additional resources? Sure. Would it help us attain equipment? Yup. But I don't think right now it has prevented us from

doing anything."

In the aftermath of Sept. 11, an independent consultant evaluating the Police Department's initial response that day cited a lack of

training for a catastrophic event and a failure to conduct enough large drills. It found that some officers did not have a clear sense

of who was in charge and that others responded directly to the site rather than to strategically devised staging areas. An

overwhelming number of the officers interviewed for the study said they had received no counterterrorism training.

To prepare for a possible next strike, Mr. Kelly said, the formation of multiple command posts was essential.

"Our borough commanders are now practicing and drilling to make certain that they can, if need be, actually control the entire

department," he said. "Mobilization sites have to be more clearly delineated. A lot of thought has to go into how they are

selected. We have to think in terms of additional or secondary attacks."

In the recent 90-minute interview, Mr. Kelly said repeatedly that he was convinced the city, while hardly invulnerable, was

substantially smarter about thwarting terror than it was last September.

He said he saw a freer flow of information from the federal government. He said that measures that included posting police

officers on the city's bridges had meaningful effects, even if they might not be obvious to the public. And he said equipping

members of the force with technologically advanced tools like beeper-sized radiation detectors could only be an improvement.

Throughout his conversation, Mr. Kelly referred to New York City as the safest big city in America.

"I think we in municipal government and, from what I can see, the federal government are doing everything that they can do and

that they can reasonably be expected to do to prevent another attack and to prepare if, God forbid, there is another one," Mr.

Kelly said. "So safe is, as I say, a relative term."

He emphasized that the department was more aware of threats and had begun thinking globally. But he said merely sending

officers to other countries was not a substitute for the vast spread of intelligence that comes from the federal intelligence agencies.

Still, he said, the Police Department's analysts also review foreign newspapers and Web sites, and have begun using

sophisticated data-mining techniques to gather information and monitor groups.

Mr. Kelly also took the opportunity to point out one of the city's most satisfying facts: that conventional crime is at historic lows

and that the city streets are safer than they have been since Mr. Kelly was born on the Upper West Side more than six decades


Despite pledges by the Fire Department and the Police Department to work more closely, a formal system of emergency

command has not been entirely ironed out, he said. But he said a formal system was not essential if both departments did their

jobs, communicating and coordinating their efforts.

Mr. Kelly has assembled a staff whose experience has been outside the more traditional aspects of municipal policing. For

example, he appointed a retired Marine lieutenant general, Frank Libutti, to head the department's counterterrorism effort and a

former director of operations of the C.I.A., David Cohen, to lead the intelligence division.

The World Trade Center struck Mr. Kelly's neighborhood. He recalled finding his bookstore and his bank pulverized and spoke

of standing on his roof in Battery Park City, staring at the sky where the buildings used to block the sunrise.

"I'll never be complacent because I walk out of my building every day and I see the gap in the sky," he said. But, he added, he is

energized rather than exhausted by his job.

This Sept. 11, he said, New Yorkers will flash back to where they were and what happened that day.

"But I think after that happens, I think people should realize that we are at war," he said. "There are people out there who are

bent on the destruction of this country. We have to, I think, internalize that and accept that as a society, and then I think it puts

other things into perspective."