Required Materials


Instructional Materials


Learning Objectives

News in the Field

Department of

Biology

Required Textbook:

Hartwell, LH et al.   Genetics: From Genes to Genomes. 5th ed.  Boston, MA: McGrawHill Higher Education, 2008.


Lab exercises provided by Instructor.


Students must provide their own safety glasses and gloves (preferably non-latex) for the laboratory.

Learning Objectives (Lecture):

1. Students will be able to describe Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance.


2. Students will be able to apply Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance to solve genetics problems involving monohybrid, dihybrid, multihybrid and test crosses using Punnett Squares and/or branched line diagrams.


3. Students will be able to describe the laws of probability, including the product rule and sum rule.


4. Students will be able to apply the laws of probability to solve genetics problems.


5. Students will be able to distinguish between genotype and phenotype.


6.Students will be able to define the terms homozygous, heterozygous and hemizygous.


7. Students will be able to distinguish between dominant and recessive alleles.


8. Students will be able to recognize genetic diseases that are inherited in an autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive manner.


9. Students will be able to interpret the symbols used in a pedigree.


10. Students will be able to distinguish between dominance relationships, including complete dominance, incomplete dominance and codominance.  


11. Students will be able to explain extensions to Mendelian genetics including multiple alleles, pleiotropy, complementary gene action and epistasis.


12. Students will be able to describe heterogeneous and polygenic traits.


13. Students will be able to explain how genes can be influenced by the environment.


14. Students will be able to define the terms haploid and diploid.


15. Students will be able to distinguish between chromosomes, sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes.


16. Students will be able to distinguish between metacentric and acrocentric chromosomes.


17. Students will be able to identify the stages of the cell cycle and phases of mitosis and meiosis.


18. Students will be able to explain the purpose of cell cycle checkpoints.


19. Students will be able to contrast the processes of mitosis and meiosis.


20. Students will be able to describe how meiosis generates genetic diversity.


21. Students will be able to contrast the processes of oogenesis and spermatogenesis.


22. Students will be able to explain how sex is determined in humans and recognize that sex determination mechanisms differ amongst species.


23. Students will be able to distinguish between sex chromosomes and autosomes.


24. Students will be able to explain how nondisjunction gives rise to aneuploidy and recognize different human aneuploidies including Turner Syndrome, Klinefelter Syndrome and Down Syndrome.


25. Students will be able to explain how sex-linked genes differ from genes on autosomes.


26. Students will be able to recognize genetic diseases that are inherited in a sex-linked dominant and sex-linked recessive manner.


27. Students will be able to distinguish between sex-limited and sex-influenced traits.


28. Students will be able to explain how linked genes differ from unlinked genes.


29. Students will be able to distinguish between parentals and recombinants and claculate the percent recombination to determine whether two genes are linked.


30. Students will be able to connect the percent recombination to a genetic map distance.


31. Students will be able to calculate the coefficient of coincidence and explain the concept of interference.


32. Students will be able to distinguish between parental ditypes, nonparental ditypes and tetratypes.


33. Students will be able to distinguish between first and second division segregation patterns.


34. Students will be able to distinguish between meiotic and mitotic recombination.


35. Students will be able to recognize the importance of experiments used to identify Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) as the genetic material and elucidate its structure and function.


36. Students will be able to describe the structure of DNA.


37. Students will be able to describe the process of DNA replication.


38. Students will be able to explain how and why DNA replication differs on the leading and lagging strands.


39. Students will be able to describe the process of bidirectional replication.


40. Students will be able to distinguish between wild-type and mutant alleles and between forward and reverse mutations.      


41. Students will be able to identify several types of mutations, including substitutions, transitions, transversions, deletions, insertions, and translocations.


42. Students will be able to describe different causes of mutations and repair mechanisms.


43. Students will be able to explain how the Ames Test is used to test for mutagenicity and describe the relationship between mutagens and carcinogens.


44. Students will be able to describe the central dogma, including the processes of transcription and translation.


45. Students will be able to describe the structure and types of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) and contrast DNA and RNA.


46. Students will be able to describe the modifications made to eukaryotic mRNA during RNA processing.


47. Students will be able to use the Genetic Code to translate a sequence of mRNA into a polypeptide.


48. Students will be able to identify the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of a protein.


49. Students will be able to describe post-translational modifications.


50. Students will be able to describe how mutations in DNA affect proteins, including silent, missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations.


51. Students will be able to distinguish between loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations.


52. Students will be able to explain suppression.


53. Students will be able to distinguish between minimal media and nutrient-rich media.

54. Students will be able to distinguish between prototrophs and auxotrophs.


55. Students will be able to distinguish between a selection and a screen.


56. Students will be able to describe and contrast the processes of transformation, conjugation and transduction.


57. Students will be able to distinguish natural from artificial transformation.


58. Students will be able to distinguish between F and F’ plasmids and describe Hfr bacteria.


59. Students will be able to distinguish between generalized and specialized transduction and the lytic and lysogenic cycles.


60. Students will be able to describe the function of the lac and trp operons and extend these principles to other catabolic and anabolic pathways.


61. Students will be able to identify the levels of DNA compaction.


62. Students will be able to distinguish between the short and long arms of chromosomes.


63. Students will be able to define the centromere, kinetochore, and telomere.


64. Students will be able to explain the end replication problem and how cells solve it.

 

65. Students will be able to distinguish amongst euchromatin, constitutive heterochromatin and facultative heterochromatin.


66. Students will be able to explain X inactivation and define a Barr body.


67. Students will be able to contrast bacterial and eukaryotic chromosomes.


68. Students will be able to identify the functions of the different types of RNA polymerase enzymes.


69. Students will be able to distinguish amongst basal transcription factors, transcriptional activators, and repressor proteins.


70. Students will be able to explain how chromatin structure affects gene expression.


71. Students will be able to contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression.


72. Students will be able to apply the principles of classical and molecular genetics to special topics including imprinting, cancer, development, mitochondrial genetics, population genetics and evolution.

  


Learning Objectives (Lab):

1. Students will be able to apply the laws of probability, including the product rule and sum rule.


2. Students will be able to use statistical tests, including percent deviation and Chi-square, to analyze data.


3. Students will be able to identify the stages of the cell cycle and calculate the amount of time cells spend in each stage.


4. Students will compare cell division between plant and animal cells.


5. Students will be able to identify the phases of meiosis and contrast mitosis and meiosis.


6. Students will be able to generate and test hypotheses for the inheritance of dominant, recessive, autosomal, sex-linked, and linked traits.


7. Students will be able to describe the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), digestion of DNA with restriction enzymes, gel electrophoresis, ligation and tranformation and explain how these techniques are used in molecular cloning.


8. Students will be able to construct a pedigree from a family history.


9. Students will be able to describe a genetic test and the role of a genetic counselor.


10. Students will be able to read a DNA sequence and identify a mutation.


11. Students will be able to identify a polymorphism.


12. Students will be able to calculate allele and genotypic frequencies in a population.


13. Students will be able to use DNA sequences to distinguish between two hypotheses for human evolution.









Biol 211

Genetics

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