Required Materials


Instructional Materials


Learning Objectives

News in the Field

Department of

Biology

Upon successful completion of the course students will be able to:


1. Explain the structural organization of the human body.

2. Define and use the appropriate anatomical, physiological and directional terminology when discussing  the human body.

3. Explain the concept of homeostasis and describe how homeostatic mechanisms regulate body functions.

4. Identify the major inorganic and organic chemical components of the human body.

5. Identify the basic structures and functions of the cell and its organelles.

6. Identify the 4 tissue types of the human body and describe their functions.

7. Identify the anatomical components of the integumentary, nervous, endocrine, skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, lymphoid, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems.

8. Describe the functions of the integumentary, nervous, endocrine, skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, lymphoid, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems.

9. Describe embryonic and fetal development.

10. Identify a common pathology related to each organ system.

11. Use language/verbal skills that enable patient understanding.

12. Perform specific physiological testing in the laboratory, including enzyme function, osmosis and diffusion, reflex analysis and special sense analysis, blood typing, electrocardiography, blood pressure analysis, spirometry and urinalysis.   



Course Outline:


The following course outline is only a guide to enable students to master the subject matter.  Individual instructors determine what specifics are covered. Instructors also determine grading and evaluation methods. Your instructor is required to provide a written copy of all of her/his policies.


Unit 1:  Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology, Cells, Tissues and the Integumentary System

Organization of the human body

Levels of organization (AtomsOrganism)

Components and functions of organ systems

Homeostasis

Negative and positive feedback

Effects of disease and aging on homeostasis

Anatomical position

Directional terminology

Anatomical regions

Anatomical planes and sections

Body cavities and serous membranes

Abdominopelvic quadrants and regions

Clinical application example:  medical imaging

Chemistry overview

Elements important to the body

Atoms and isotopes

Chemical bonds:  ionic, covalent, hydrogen

Chemical reactions

Metabolism

Anabolic reactions

Catabolic reactions  

Important inorganic molecules

Water

Acids and bases, pH and buffers

Salts

Important organic molecules

Carbohydrates

Lipids

Proteins (enzymes)

Nucleic acids

ATP

Clinical application examples:  Radioisotopes and medicine; antacids and heartburn; enzyme denaturation with disease/fever

Cell overview  

Major organelles and functions

Plasma membrane

Transport mechanisms

Passive transport:  diffusion and osmosis

Active transport:  pumps, exchangers, vesicular transport

Protein synthesis

Cell cycle

Clinical application example:  Tonicity and the effect on red blood cells

Tissue overview

Epithelial tissue

Components and general function applicable to all epithelial tissue

Specific examples:  location and function

Connective tissue

Components and general function applicable to all connective tissue

Specific examples:  location and function

Muscular tissue

Components and general function applicable to all muscle tissue

Specific examples:  location and function

Nervous tissue

Components and general function applicable to all nervous tissue

Specific examples:  location and function

Four membranes

Cutaneous, mucous, serous, synovial

Clinical application examples:  pathology visualization; hyperplasia

Integumentary system

Components of the Integument

Skin

Epidermis and dermis

Layers, components and functions

Hypodermis

Skin color

Glands:  sweat and sebaceous

Hair and nails

Clinical application examples:

1st, 2nd and 3rd degree burns

Skin cancers:  detection and treatments

Unit 2:  Bones, Joints and Muscles

Skeletal system

Overview of functions

Bone structure

Anatomy of a long bone

Osseous tissue

Compact bone vs. spongy bone

Bone growth and remodeling

Clinical application examples:  bone fracture and repair; osteoporosis

Axial skeleton

Appendicular skeleton

Joints

Fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial

structures and movements at each

Tendons vs. ligaments

Clinical application examples:  arthroscopy, joint dislocation

Muscle tissue

Overview of three tissue types and basic characteristics

Location, function and type of control

Skeletal muscle tissue

Structure (whole muscle  myofilaments)

Events at the neuromuscular junction

Excitation-Contraction coupling

Skeletal muscle fiber type

Sources of energy

Clinical application examples:  Rhabdomyolysis, tetanus

Major skeletal muscles and their actions

Unit 3:  Nervous System and Endocrine System

Nervous system

Overview and divisions

CNS vs. PNS

Afferent vs. Efferent

Autonomic nervous system: Parasympathetic vs. Sympathetic

Cells of the nervous system

Neurons

General structure

Classification

Neuroglia

CNS:  microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrites, ependymal cells

PNS:  Schwann cells and satellite cells

Electrophysiology

Resting, graded and action potentials

Action potential propagation

Synapses

Neurotransmitters

Clinical application example:  pain blockers

Central nervous system

Brain

Basic anatomical components and functions of each

Spinal cord

Cross-sectional anatomy

Spinal nerves

Meninges

Locations and functions

Cerebrospinal fluid

Location and functions

Clinical application examples:  meningitis, spinal taps and epidurals

Peripheralnervous system

Anatomy of a nerve

Spinal nerves

Cranial nerves

Overview of nerve plexuses

Reflexes

Somatic and special senses

Somatic vs. visceral senses

Receptor types overview

Pathways overview (from sensation to perception)

Special senses:  structures and functions

Olfaction

Gustation

Vision

Hearing

Equilibrium

Structures and functions

Endocrine system

Basic components of the endocrine system

Hormones

Basic functions

Peptide vs. steroid hormones

Hormone receptors

Hypothalamus and the pituitary gland

Anterior lobe

Posterior lobe

Important endocrine glands/tissues

Thyroid gland

Parathyroid glands

Pancreas

Adrenal glands

Kidneys

Heart

Gonads

Unit 4:  Cardiovascular System and Lymphatics/Immunity

Cardiovascular system overview

Components

Functions

Blood

Components and functions of whole blood

Plasma

Formed elements:  erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets

Hematocrit

Erythrocytes

Morphology

Functions

Formation and recycling

Blood typing-ABO, Rh

Clinical measurements

Leukocytes

Granulocytes vs. Agranulocytes

Morphology

Functions

Clinical measurements

Platelets

Hemostasis

Clinical measurements

Heart

Anatomy

Internal vs. external anatomical features

Blood flow through the heart

Coronary circulation

Conducting system

Nodal and muscle cells

Nervous system control

Performing and reading an EKG

Cardiac cycle

Cardiodynamics

Clinical application example:  myocardial infarction

Blood vessels

Structure, function and location of each type of vessel

Arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins

Hemodynamics

Blood pressure

Measurements

Regulation

Gas exchange at the capillaries

Filtration vs. reabsorption

Clinical application examples:  hypertension, atherosclerosis

Lymphatics overview

Components and functions of the lymphoid system

Nonspecific defenses

Specific defenses

Cell-mediated immunity

Antibody-mediated immunity

Clinical application examples:  autoimmune disorders; immunizations

Unit 5:  Respiratory System, Digestion and Metabolism

Respiratory system overview

Components

Functions

Physiology of breathing:  pulmonary function testing

Gases

Composition, properties, partial pressures

Gas exchange

Gas transport

Clinical application example:  carbon monoxide poisoning

Control of respiration

Respiratory acidosis

Respiratory alkalosis

Digestive system overview

Components

Functions

Digestive physiology

Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins

Digestion and absorption of water, electrolytes and vitamins

Clinical application examples:  gastric bypass surgery, colectomy, colonoscopy, obesity, starvation

Metabolism

Carbohydrates

Lipids

Proteins

Absorptive vs. postabsorptive states

Clinical application examples:  lactic acidosis, kwashiorkor

Unit 6:  Urinary System, Reproductive System, Development

Urinary system overview

Components

Functions

Physiology of urine formation

Filtration

Reabsorption

Secretion

Regulation of urine production

Renal response to acidosis

Renal response to alkalosis

Clinical application examples:  kidney stones, urinary tract infection, bladder cancer

Reproductive systems overview

Male reproductive system

Anatomical structures

Physiology

Semen components and production

Spermatogenesis

Hormonal regulation

Female reproductive system

Anatomical structures

Physiology

Oogenesis

Ovarian cycle

Uterine (menstrual) cycle

Fertilization and pregnancy

Lactation

Menopause

Hormonal regulation

Clinical application examples:  prostate cancer, ovarian cancer, BRCA, HNPCC

Embryonic development

Early development

Completion of meiosis

Formation of zygote

Morula and blastocyst formation

Implantation

Primary germ layers

Embryogenesis and fetal development

Labor and delivery

Clinical application examples:  fetal alcohol syndrome, Down syndrome

Biol 108 -

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Text:  Martini, F.H & Bartholomew, E.F. Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, Custom Edition for Community College of Philadelphia, 2013.  San Francisco: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings.


Laboratory Manual:  Marieb, E. Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 5th edition, 2012.  San Franciso:  Pearson/Benjamin Cummings.  


Required  Lab Equipment :

Students must purchase Safety Goggles and Gloves for the laboratory


Download Syllabus