Required Materials


Instructional Materials


Learning Objectives

News in the Field

Department of

Biology

Lecture Topics and Reading Assignments

I.  INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY


A. The history of microbiology     ..........   [Chapter 1]

   1. The scientific process of investigation

   2. The discovery of microorganisms

   3. Spontaneous generation vs. biogenesis

   4. The Germ Theory of Disease--Koch's postulates

   5. Prevention and treatment of microbial diseases

   6. Later advances

B. Characterization, classification and identification of microorganisms    ...........   [Chapter 9]

   1. Major characteristics of microorganisms

         a. criteria for classification

   2. Taxonomy and nomenclature

C. Current research paper illustrating method of classification


II.  LABORATORY STUDY OF MICROORGANISMS


A. The Staining of Bacterial Cells       ...........      [Chapter 3]

B. Cultivation of Bacteria ........... [Chapter 6]

   1. Nutritional Classification (autotrophic/heterotrophic)

   2. Media Types

   3. Physical and chemical conditions required for growth

   4. Pure culture methods

   5. Reproduction and growth of bacterial

         a. Growth rate and generation time

         b. Normal growth curve

   6. Measurement of bacterial growth


III.  SURVEY OF BACTERIA AND VIRUSES


A. Bacteria ..........[Chapter 4]

   1. Morphology and Structural components

         a. Bacterial cytoplasm, cell membrane and cell wall

         b. The glycocalyx

         c. Appendages - flagella and pili

         d. Endospores

   2. Major groups of bacteria..........[Chapter 10]

         a. Bacteria of ecological, industrial, and general significance

         b. Bacteria of medical importance

   1. Representative species of the following genera:

         a. Treponema

         b. Neisseria

         c. Bordetella

         d Salmonella

         e. Hemophilus

         f. Staphylococcus

         g. Streptococcus

         h. Others, at this time or at the end of the semester as time permits.

          See: Last topic on this list.

B. Viruses          ..........      [Chapter 11]

   1. Morphology

   2. Cultivation

   3. Replication (lytic cycle/lysogeny)

   4. Classification

   5. Viruses of medical importance

         a. Influenza

         b. Herpes

         c. Hepatitis

         d. AIDS

         e. Others, optional, at the discretion of the Instructor, as time permits


IV.  METABOLISM OF MICROORGANISMS        ..........        [Chapter 5]


A. Enzymes and their regulation

   1. Mechanisms of enzyme action

   2. Conditions affecting enzyme activity

B. Energy Release (catabolism)

   1. energy - characteristics and measurement

   2. Biological oxidation (dehydrogenation)

         a. an energetics oriented description of glycolysis and citric acid cycle

   3. Electron transfer (electron transport)

         a. chemiosmotic theory

   4. Respiration (aerobic) vs. fermentation (anaerobic)

         a. relative phosphorylative efficiencies

   5. Alternate pathways for fermentation

C. Energy utilization (anabolism)

   1. Use of energy in non-biosynthetic processes

   2. Use of energy for biosynthesis of organic molecules

         a. General description - light dependent and light independent photosynthesis

D. Current research paper on aspects of metabolism


V.  MICROBIAL GENETICS


A. Nucleus Acids..........[Chapter 7]

   1. DNA vs. RNA - a comparison

   2. Nucleic Acid Biosynthesis

   3. Regulation and expression of gene activity

         a. Operon Theory

B. Genetics of bacteria..........[Chapter 7 and 8]

   1. Variability and inheritance of characteristics

   2. Phenotypic vs. genotypic changes

   3. Mutational origin of bacterial resistance to antibiotic therapy

   4. Bacterial recombination

         a. conjugation

         b. transformation

         c. transduction

   5. Products of Genetically Engineered Bacteria

C. Genetic engineering       ..........      [Chapter 8]

   1. The isolation of a gene

   2. Formation of a chimera          a. Restriction endonucleases          b. Ligation

   3. Choice of vectors

         a. plasmids

         b. viruses

4. Selection - engineered cells

         a. selective media

D. Current research paper on an aspect of genetics (professor's choice)


VI.  CONTROL OF MICROORGANISMS      ..........      [Chapter 13]


A. Fundamentals of control

    1. Terminology

    2. Pattern and rate of bacterial death

    3. Mode of action of antimicrobial agents

B. Control by physical agents

C. Control by chemical agents

D. Antibiotics and other chemotherapeutic agents      ........  [Chapter 14]


VII.  MICROORGANISMS AND DISEASE -

       HOST RESISTANCE TO INFECTION      ...  [Chapters 15 & 16]


A. Host-microbe interactions

    1. Mutualism and commensalism

   2. Pathogenicity

    3. Microbial virulence factors

    4. Factors influencing infection and transmission of communicable diseases

B. Host resistance       ..........      [Chapters 17]

    1. Natural resistance and non-specific defense mechanisms

   2. Specific defense mechanisms - acquired immunity      ...........      [Chapter 18]

         a. active vs. passive immunity

         b. antigens and antibodies

                  1) properties of antigens

                  2) functional classification of antibodies

          c. development of the immune response

                  1) function of T and B cells

                  2) hypersensitivities (ITH vs. DTH)

   3. Current research paper on aspects of immunity       ..........      [Chapter 19]


Representative and relevant diseases, of the various body systems, will be selected from the referenced chapters, by the instructor.

Biol 241

Principles of Microbiology

Required Text:

Tortora, Funke, Case.  Microbiology.  An Introduction.  Customized edtion for Community College of Philadelphia


Required Lab Manual:

 A Microbiology Laboratory Manual Parts I-II and III, by Drs J. Green, W. Berman,  and R. Mitchell,  Community College of Philadelphia Department of Biology    ( provided by the department)


Note: Students are required to have safety goggles and gloves for laboratory.

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