Required Materials


Instructional Materials


Learning Objectives

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Department of

Biology

Upon successful completion of the course, a student will be able to:


1) Define and use the appropriate scientific terminology when discussing the human body at all levels of organization.


 Objectives:


Define the scope and subdivisions of anatomy and physiology

Define anatomical position and use anatomical and directional terminology

Describe body cavities in terms of location, borders and content

Identify the major organs and describe the general functions of the 11 organ systems



2) Describe the various components of cells and tissues, indicating their structural and functional significance in contributing to more complex levels of organization including organs, organ systems and the holistic body.


 Objectives:

  

Relate the basic concepts of chemistry including: atomic structure, chemical bonds, chemical reactions and pH, to the cell and body

Relate the basic chemistry and functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, to the cell and body

Describe the structure and explain the functions of cellular organelles

Explain transport across the plasma membrane, the process of protein synthesis and events of the cell cycle

Identify tissues of the body and discuss the locations and function of each

Identify the four types of membranes and discuss the locations and functions of each



3) Describe the anatomical organization and structural components of the integumentary, nervous, endocrine, skeletal and muscular systems.


 Objectives:


Identify the components of the integumentary system including the histological features of the integument and hypodermis

Explain the structural and functional organization of the nervous system

Describe the structure of neurons and neuroglial cells

Identify and describe the structure of the spinal cord and spinal nerves and explain their function

Identify the major structures and regions of the brain and the 12 cranial nerves

Distinguish afferent pathways including types, locations of sensory receptors and 1st, 2nd and 3rd order neurons

Describe the structure of the special sensory organs

Compare and contrast the organization of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system and explain the concept of dual innervation

Identify the major endocrine glands and the hormones they release

Identify the major bones and surface markings of the skeleton

Describe the major structural and functional classes of articulations and the movements attributed to synovial joints

Describe the composition and structure of a typical long bone, distinguishing between compact and spongy bone

Identify major skeletal muscles of the body and describe their primary action

Describe the structure and organization of skeletal muscle

Compare and contrast structural differences between skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle



4) Explain how the integumentary, nervous, endocrine, skeletal and muscular systems function at the cellular, tissue and organ and organ system levels.


 Objectives:


Explain the function of the integument and accessory structures of the integumentary system

Describe the functions of neurons and neuroglial cells

Describe the factors that contribute to the resting membrane potential of a neuron and explain the development and propagation of an electrical impulse

Compare and contrast electrical and chemical synapses and explain the process of synaptic transmission

Describe the steps of a neural reflex, including the stretch, withdrawal and crossed-extensor reflexes

Explain the functions of the major regions of the brain and the 12 cranial nerves  

Explain afferent pathways including the different modes of sensory input, major ascending and descending tracts of the spinal cord and processing centers in the brain  

Explain somatic motor control

Explain the mechanisms involved in special sensory organ function

Compare and contrast the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system and explain the concept of autonomic tone

Explain the difference between peptide and lipid based hormones in terms of the mechanisms by which each affect target cells

Explain hypothalamic control of the endocrine system

Explain the role of each hormone in regulation and maintenance of homeostasis

Explain the development and growth of bone, including hormonal and dietary factors affecting those processes

Explain excitation-contraction coupling and the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction

Explain the reactions by which skeletal muscle fibers generate ATP, distinguishing between aerobic and anaerobic processes

Explain factors that affect tension generation in muscle including the length-tension relationship, stimulation rate, motor unit recruitment and fiber type characteristics

Explain functional differences between skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle






5) Describe how both the nervous and endocrine systems function independently and in a coordinated manner to regulate homeostasis.


 Objectives:


Explain the concept of homeostasis and how homeostatic mechanisms regulate body function

Explain the structural and functional organization of the nervous system

Explain the functions of the major regions of the brain and the 12 cranial nerves

Explain afferent pathways including the different modes of sensory input, major ascending and descending tracts of the spinal cord and processing centers in the brain  

Explain somatic motor control

Explain the mechanisms involved in special sensory organ function

Compare and contrast the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system and explain the concept of autonomic tone

Explain hypothalamic control of the endocrine system

Explain the role of each hormone in regulation and maintenance of homeostasis

Explain the development and growth of bone, including hormonal and dietary factors affecting those processes

Explain factors that affect tension generation in skeletal muscle including the length-tension relationship, stimulation rate, motor unit recruitment and fiber type characteristics


6) Identify anatomical features of tissues, models and dissected specimen and assess physiological function using various laboratory techniques.

Objectives:


Identify the major bones and surface markings of the skeleton

Identify major skeletal muscles of the body and describe their primary action

Demonstrate use of the compound light microscope for the identification of tissues

Identify anatomical regions/structures of the nervous system using a dissected specimen

Perform physiological assessments in the laboratory related to neurological function

  

 



Required Textbook:

Martini F. H. & Nath, J.L.,

Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 11th Ed.


Required Lab Manual: Laboratory Manual for Anatomy and Physiology, by M.G. Wood.   Pearson-Benjamin/Cummings, San Francisco, CA.


Required Lab Equipment : Students must purchase Safety Goggles and Gloves for the laboratory




The JayDoc Histoweb - great histology resources


The Brain from Top to Bottom - a multi-layered approach


A Typical Animal Cell - good basic review of organelles


Anatomy and Physiology Practice Practicals  - Great for 109 and 110

Biol 109

Anatomy & Physiology I

Download Syllabus